Dispute Resolver Directory

– Australia

Search results 138 dispute resolvers match your search results

Showing 1 - 50 of 138 results
Jean Sparling
IAN MCINTYRE
Sydney

Dispute Avoidance, Advisory and Resolution Boards. Expert witness on causes and effects of project delivery problems.

 

 

Grahame Wrobel

Construction/Architecture/Engineering Quantity Surveyor Expert Witness

Steve Abbott
Sydney

With 40 years’ experience in the Building, Construction and Engineering Industries, Steve Abbott has worked through the Construction Industry from Carpenter to senior management positions within some of the largest construction organisations in Australia.  During the first 20 years of his career in construction contracting, his responsibilities ranged from the delivery of individual major projects to the management of complete business units for major construction organisations.

Steve is an accomplished construction expert specialising in the areas of time (delay/disruption), quantum, quality of product and construction process / project delivery.  He has provided expert witness services in relation to Arbitrations (including International Arbitrations), Expert Determinations, Mediations and has authored expert reports and testified in most legal jurisdictions including the Supreme Courts of New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria.

Steve has provided expert services on some of the largest building, construction and engineering projects across Australia together with major projects in New Zealand, Macau, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and the United Kingdom.  During the past 20 years since launching SJA, Steve has also played an active role in the Client-Side Project Management of hundreds of live construction projects via SJA’s Project Management Division including the day to day Project Management of construction projects and also acting in the role of Superintendent.

Steve is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Project Management, a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Management, a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Building, a Member of the Resolution Institute (formally the Institute of Arbitrators and Mediators Australia), a Member of the Society of Construction Law and a Member of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (UK).

Steve is also a Certified Practicing Project Manager with the Australian Institute of Project Management. He holds a current Supervisor’s Certificate in accordance with the requirements of the NSW Office of Fair Trading and holds a Builder - Project Management License with the Queensland Building and Construction Commission (QBCC).  Steve is also a member of the Australian Property Council, and the Master Builders Association of NSW.

Steve is also a qualified Mediator and Expert Determiner with the Resolution Institute and is currently studying in relation to the Certificate in Arbitration.

Sam Lawson
Nick  Longley
Marcel Alter

As a practioner of over 30 years I have the life, legal and commercial experience to assist all different types of people in all different manner Tha aim is always to ensure the parties can move on

Craig Walsh
Sydney

40 years' experience in construction industry, both building and engineering construction, including over 20 years of employment by contractors as a Project Engineer, Project Manager, Contracts Administrator, Contracts Manager and Commercial Manager. Claims formulation, assessment and negotiation, including exposure to all forms of dispute resolution processes. 20 years’ experience consulting on construction-related issues. Preparation of Expert Reports and giving Expert Evidence in formal proceedings. Contract Review and negotiation, project risk assessment, preparation of commercial strategies for the delivery and recovery of projects. Project auditing and financial reporting. Development, review and auditing of contract administration procedures. Preparation of training courses and conducting training on contract administration.

Paul Lutvey

Resolving disputes commercially and cost effectively allows parties to get on with their business. I have represented clients in many mediations and arbitrations and as a graded arbitrator have conducted a number of arbitrations  and delivered awards following lengthy contested hearings and submissions. Main areas of expertise include property, franchising, building, banking and finance and general commercial disputes.

Mark Flynn
Thirty years of project management, design and engineering of buildings and infrastructure. Projects delivered in Australia, Papua New Guinea, Asia, Pacific Islands.
Mukul Dey

Accounting/Finance/Banking

Ian Nosworthy

Admitted SA 1968, also NSW, VIC and NT. Arbitrator, mediator, and litigator in construction and engineering disputes over 20 years. Past Chairman SA Chapter IAMA. LEADR, Law Society ADR Committee member. Numerous published articles, including computerisation, evidence, litigation support, tendering, variations, mediation and arbitration. Many Australian and overseas speaking engagements. Honorary Solicitor Gymnastics (SA).

Peter  Finnane

Building & construction expert, mediator, arbitrator, adjudicator & expert determiner.

Colin Fullerton
Adelaide SA

Construction and maintenance of infrastructure & buildings, Water, sewerage and drainage systems, Rail and Road Transport, Contract procurement and management, Electricity transmission, Training courses in procurement & Contract management.

John Paul Bartley

Masters Degree Mediation and Conflict Resolution, Grad Cert Employment Law. Accountant in Public Practice;Institute of Public Accountants, Australian NZ Insurance and Investments Institute,Institute of Company Directors Facilitator for HIA, ARA,.

Barry Tozer
Sydney

Advisor on construction management issues including documentation, scheduling and costs, contractual disputes and tender evaluation Assignments have included preparation and review of documents, cost estimates and reviews of claims for works as diverse as antennae, tunnels and underground structures, bridges, wharves, road and railway construction, mining infrastructure, pipelines, power stations and process plants and industrial, commercial and residential building. Clients have included contractors, subcontractors, public authorities, developers and major companies (1979-present). Member, National Committee on Construction Engineering, IEAust,(1991-present). Part-time lecturer, University of Sydney (1983-1993), UNSW (1984-1994). Previously employed as project engineer and senior estimator by John Holland Constructions Pty. Ltd. (1973 ? 1979). Prior to 1973, spent 8 years gaining construction and design experience in Australia and overseas on power station and tunnelling works. Engineer / civil Consultant Construction

Gordon Hughes

practise in the area of information technology law, privacy law and intellectual property law. Former president of Victorian Society for Computers and the Law, Law Institute of Victoria, Law Council of Australia and Lawasia, and former chairman of the Victorian Board of Examiners for Barristers and Solicitors.

Grant Ezzy
Warrnambool
Alicia Hill
Melbourne, Victoria

Assisting parties mediate, arbitrate, facilitte, conciliate or resolve commercial disputes across Australia.

Gavin Halling

Construction/Architecture/Engineering Consultant / Project Management Project Management Consultancy & Training, Construction (Engineering & Building)

Michael JF Sweeney
Melbourne

Arbitration specialist in gas, energy, resources disputes; commercial and contract law; domain name disputes; competition law access disputes for pipelines and telecos; partnership disputes; sports law arbitration. Experience includes arbitration and mediation of complex multi party joint venture disputes between international corporations and domestic disputes.  

Fellow Chartered Institute if Arbitrators & Chartered Arbitrator; Panel Member, WIPO Arbitration Centre; Fellow ACICA Arbitration and Mediation panels; Fellow Kuala Lumpur Arbitration Centre; American Arbitration Association; Shenzen, China Arbirtation Panel; Energy Review Board, Western Australia. 

Michael is a skilled practitioner who had heard and determined many hundreds of commercial and contractual disputes. He also has deep experience in mediated outcomes both at the corporate level and at the private company and partnership levels.   

David Francis
Sydney and travel anywhere

I have over 40 years of experience in commercial disputes management and resolution. Having practised as a solicitor and barrister from 1970 to 2016 I have ceased to practice as a lawyer in order to focus on mediation, adjudication, arbitration and expert determination. I have been acting as an arbitrator of civil disputes for more than 30 years. I continue to do so and have also adjudicated Building Payment Act claims around Australia except South Australia since 2003. I have conducted expert determinations for commercial parties and industry bodies.
I was first exposed to mediation in 1991 which in 1993 inspired me to start formal studies in dispute resolution, mediation and negotiation as part of my UTS Masters of Law degree. In 1995 I became an accredited mediator.
In the several hundred disputes in which I have been the mediator I have worked with the parties to help them analyse the sources of their conflict, understand what an acceptable outcome would look like, encourage them in their decision-making to develop options for resolution and negotiation strategies and, if relevant and possible, maintain working relationships with the other party.
A big part of my professional life has been training - myself and others.
Lifelong learning is a given. I am energised intellectually and personally by the training opportunities I am fortunate enough to have and the people I meet while doing so.

Michael DG Heaton QC
Barrister, Arbitrator,Adjudicator, Mediator Melbourne

Advocate, arbitrator, adjudicator (Vic, WA and NT ) and mediator in a broad range of commercial areas. Mr Heaton has been practising for over 40 years.

Litigation

Mr Heaton practises predominantly in contract, commercial, corporations, insolvency, building and construction, banking and finance, property, trade practices and public law.

Arbitration

He practises as an arbitrator and represents parties in arbitrations. He was the arbitrator in Amasya Enterprises Pty Ltd v Asta Developments (Aust) Pty Ltd [2016] VSC 326. He is on the NBN panel and the NSW Mining and Petroleum Land Access Arbitration Panel and has arbitrated under that scheme.

Adjudication

He has carried out adjudications where disputes range from over $16 million to several thousand dollars. He was the adjudicator in APM DF2 Project2 Pty Ltd v Grocon Constructors (Vic) Pty Ltd [2014] VSC 596 and Commercial Industrial Group Pty Ltd v King Construction Group Pty Ltd [2015] VSC 426. He is also happy to advise and appear for claimants and respondents.

Mediation

Mr Heaton is a nationally accredited and Victorian Bar Advanced Accredited Mediator. He has been mediating for 30 years.  He is on the ACICA, RI and Franchise Code Mediation Panels.

Publications

He is the author of the "Guarantee and Indemnity" section of LexisNexis Court Forms and Precedents Victoria.

He has had articles and case notes published in the Arbitrator & Mediator.

Mr Heaton chaired the ADR Committee of The Victorian Bar for 8 years. He serves on the Board and Chairs the Risk Committee of Servants Community Housing Ltd. He chaired the Human Research Ethics Committee for the Christian Research Association, Converge Australia,Tabor College and Harvest Bible College for 16 years and remains on that committee.

Mr Heaton swims, sails a  Couta Boat, walks, reads the New Yorker and follows Monash Blues,Old Scotch and Collingwood Football Clubs and grandchildren.

 

Stephen Walsh

Legal Barrister

Robert Heath
Melbourne and Dubai
NICHOLAS FLOREANI

Nicholas Floreani is an experienced ADR practitioner specialising in building, construction and engineering disputes.

He is admitted as a barrister of the Supreme Court of South Australia and New South Wales and a solicitor of England and Wales. He practises from Jeffcott Chambers in Adelaide.

Nick is an accredited Mediator, Arbitrator and Adjudicator in South Australia and the Northern Territory.

Prior to joining Jeffcott Chambers, he gained experience in complex international and domestic construction disputes whilst at the New South Wales Bar and with the law firm, Allen Allen & Hemsley, Sydney and later Clifford Chance, London.

Chris Pitts
NSW Mediation Conflict Coaching

Principal Services 

Workplace and commercial mediation, dispute avoidance and ADR services.  

Dispute avoidance and resolution involving either employees and /or managers /directors/ partners with employment and inter-personnel issues;

Contractual disputes involving contracts, franchises, projects, IT, professional services and consumers. 

Elder mediation involving families and their support team.

 

Stephen Lee

Barrister at Law since 1995. Member Bar Associations Qld & NSW. Admitted in Qld; NSW; Vic; ACT; England and Wales (The Honourable Society of the Middle Temple); and New York (Attorney at Law). Mediated or appeared for parties in numerous mediations as well as appearing for parties as Counsel in all Courts including 17 appearances in the High Court of Australia. Practice areas include general commercial litigation, contract, equity, remedies, trusts & estates, banking & finance, insolvency, professional negligence, public law, ADR.

Julie Wright
Roman Krumins

Construction Management, Project Management, Operations Management, Business Consulting, Alternative Dispute Resolution Industries: Government, Manufacturing, Transport, Construction, Minerals Processing, Food Processing

George Kruk
Pymble, New South Wales

Chartered civil and structural engineer specialising in design, construction and management of projects.

  • Bachelor of Engineering (Civil) University of NSW, 1972
  • Master of Engineering Science (Structural) University of NSW, 1975
  • Building Business Management, Sydney Technical College, 1981
  • National Professional Engineers Register (Civil)
  • Fellow, Institution of Engineers Australia
  • Member, American Society of Quality
  • Member, NSW Permanent Way Institute
  • Lead Auditor Quality Exemplar Global
  • Lead Auditor Work Health and Safety Exemplar Global

George has over 40 years experience working in private and public organisations, and as managing director of his own company.  He has a detailed knowledge of design (including safety in design), construction and project management principles and practice.  George has developed particular expertise in the area of building and infrastructure delivery including contract administration, project management, quality and safety assurance, risk management and management system auditing. 

George is a Lead Auditor on the NSW Roads and Maritime Services (RMS) infrastructure audit panel and undertakes quality, safety and technical audits of major infrastructure projects for RMS.  George also undertakes senior project roles for clients and has recently performed in the role of Safety Assurance Manager to deliver the North West Rail Link Surface Viaducts and Civils contract.

Robert Hunt

1965 - 1967 N.S.W. Public Works Department - Cadet Engineer. 1968 - 1980 Various supervisory and management positions in the construction industry in NSW, ACT and Queensland, ranging from Foreman to Managing Director. 1980 - 1983 Building Consultancy / Paralegal 1983 to date Professional practice as a barrister in New South Wales, Victoria, Australian Capital Territory, South Australia, Western Australia and Northern Territory of Australia, in building, engineering design and construction, marine engineering, professional liability, property damage, intellectual property and general commercial and contractual disputes ranging in value up to approx Aus$100 million. 1985 to date Arbitrator, Court-appointed Referee, Expert Determiner/Appraiser, Mediator or Adjudicator in various building, engineering, shipbuilding, intellectual property and commercial disputes in Australasia and Asia, ranging in value up to approx. Aus$75 million. 2000 - 2002 IAMA National President 1999 - 2004 IAMA National Executive 1997 - 2005 IAMA National Council, including Chairman of the Education & Professional Development Committee from 2000 to 2003, Chairman of the Journal Committee from 2000 to 2005, and Member of the Practice Notes Rules & By-laws Committee (to 2003) and the Professional Affairs Committee 1999 - 2005 Director - Australian Centre for International Commercial Arbitration Ltd Robert Hunt is a Grade 1 Arbitrator and accredited as a Mediator and Adjudicator by IAMA. He is also a Chartered Arbitrator on the London Panel of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators and a member of numerous other dispute resolution panels in Australia and overseas. He has been particularly active in promoting prompt and cost-effective resolution of technical and commercial disputes, and has spoken on this topic at various Conferences in Australia and overseas. He drafted the IAMA Rules for the Conduct of Commercial Arbitrations (incorporating the Expedited Arbitration Rules) 1999, the IAMA Expert Determination Rules 2001, the IAMA Mediation and Conciliation Rules 2001, the IAMA Industry and Consumer Scheme Rules 2001 and the IAMA / Australian Seed Federation Dispute Resolution Scheme (for the Domestic Trade in Seed for Sowing Purposes and for the Management of Intellectual Property) 2005. In addition to writing various IAMA Practice Notes, he is the author of 'Establishing the Basis for Arbitration and ADR' and 'The Trade Practices Act and Associated Legislation" chapters in 'A Guide to Arbitration Practice in Australia' (University of Adelaide), as well as a number of published articles on dispute resolution and dispute avoidance in various professional journals in Australia and overseas. His areas of Dispute Resolution Practice Expertise are as follows: Agricultural business / Products / Livestock Construction - Major Commercial and Industrial Construction - Design / Architecture / Documentation Construction - Civil Engineering and Mining Business to Business Sales / Contracts / Performance Insurance / Actuarial / Loss Adjustment Intellectual Property / Brands / Trademarks Legal Services Maritime Industry Mining Industry

Robert Riddell
Sydney

Robert is often appointed to conduct arbitrations, adjudications and expert determinations.  he also provides front and back end legal services and education for developers, contractors, owners corporations, design consultants. 

Robert has a long history of advising on soft and hard infrastructure projects, including ports, power, education, telecommunications, mining and agribusiness projects and leverages a wide range of specialised legal skills available to him through the Piper Alderman network.  He is regularly involved in negotiating and documenting: MOUs, HoAs, consortium deeds, project agreements, shareholder or JV agreements EPCs, EPCMs, design and construct and other service procurement, finance and consultancy agreements.

His experience in building regulatory issues in NSW is market leading.  He has long been an expert on residential building regulation and, following the commencement of the Residential Apartment Building  (Compliance and Enforcement) Act and the Design and Building Practitioners Act, frequently assists clients to understand the new regulatory overlay and navigate and resolve issues arising out of intervention by the NSW Building Commissioner.  

In 2005, Robert was appointed to Master Builders Association of NSW’s Legal and Contracts Committee.  In 2015, he was appointed Honorary Patron of the Institute of Building Consultants in New South Wales.  In 2018 he was elected Chair of the Resolution Institute’s NSW Determinative Group, accrediting adjudicators, expert determiners and arbitrators, providing policy advice, support for submissions to government and designing and rolling out its professional education programs.

Richard Chesterman

27 years as barrister;15 as Queen's Counsel. 14 years as judge of the Supreme Court of Qld;3 as Judge of Appeal

Robert (Bob) Beck

Arbitration, adjudication, claim preparation and settlement of disputes, involving Supreme and Magistrate Court actions for disputes between principals and contractors, developers and designers, principals and consultants, contractors and subcontractors, suppliers and contractors.

Services are able to be provided either hourly or fixed cost and are negotiated on a case by case basis.

William Taylor
Sydney metropolitan

Arbitrator, Expert Determiner, Adjudicator, Dispute Board Member, Mediator, Civil Engineer and Licensed Builder (NSW)

William Taylor is a Civil Engineer, Residential Builder and Lawyer of the Supreme Court of NSW, specialising in the resolution of disputes in the building and construction industry.

He has more than 20 years’ experience in the fields of Arbitration, Expert Determination, Dispute Avoidance Boards, Security of Payment Adjudication, Court References, Facilitation and Mediation and over 35 years’ experience as a civil engineer, licensed builder and construction consultant.

William has experience on major civil construction projects including roads, dams, tunnels, railways, water treatment works and bridges, together with hands-on experience as a residential building contractor. For over 25 years, as director of Build and Civil Pty Ltd, William also provided reports and expert evidence on residential building defects in the Supreme Court of NSW, the District Court of NSW and the NSW Civil and Administrative Tribunal.

Gregory Thorpe

Contracting price forecasting, competitive market design, regulatory and governance for electricity and gas industry. Mr Thorpe has over 30 years experience in electricity and gas market and utility environments. He is a director of the consulting firm of Oakley Greenwood Pty Ltd and previously led the energy practice for CRA International in Australasia. He has been a member of panels hearing major disputes under the market rules for gas and electricity. He has also assisted parties in mediation and been an expert witness. Mr Thorpe has extensive experience designing, developing, reviewing, implementing and interpreting codes and rules for utility markets and contracts between market participants. He has experience with different electricity and gas market arrangements used in the eastern states of Australia, Western Australia and internationally. He has led multi-disciplinary teams of economists, engineers and policy specialists assisting businesses, regulators and market authorities with commercial, technical and governance issues in competitive and regulated sectors of electricity and gas markets. He has used sophisticated market models to value generation and transmission assets for international and local investors and advised on risks and opportunities under the various rules and contract structures. Mr Thorpe�s prior positions have included as an Associate Director of the Australian National Electricity Code Administrator (1998-2001) and Manager of Codes and Rules for the Victorian Power Exchange (1994-1998). He managed numerous reviews and enhancements to market arrangements undertaking basic design and consultation with stakeholders and regulators. Mr Thorpe was executive officer to the initial Reliability Panel in Australia and he established the first formal monitoring and surveillance regime for the national electricity. His early career experience was as a power system engineer where he worked in power system control of dispatch of generation and transmission, operational planning and cross border sales and in the design of high voltage networks. Also expert in Energy Market, Energy Conracts, and Energy Policy

Jennifer Harden Jones
Perth Western Australia

Jennifer Harden Jones is an Arbitrator specialising in construction and IT disputes.

She has extensive experience as a Construction Superintendent and IT management roles.  These roles have included contract creation and negotiation in both the construction and IT industries.

Jennifer provides contract and dispute resolution consultancy to prevent and manage any potential disputes, thereby saving time and money for the client.  She also offers consultancy services when clients require advice and assistance in negotiations to achieve an optimal solution.

Catherine Williams
Wayville Adelaide Fringe

As an engineer, builder, and consultant in construction dispute management and resolution, I display a range of practical skills and commercial acumen.

Whilst I bring this practical approach to my mediation practice, I am also a naturally empathetic, pragmatic and warm person, and an excellent listener.

I live in Adelaide with my husband, two children and dog, and am passionate about helping people and businesses overcome any variety of conflict and dispute.

I am available to mediate at short notice and can arrange mediations outside of business hours (e.g. on the weekend).

The mediation will take place on Greenhill Road, Wayville, with close access for public transport, and plenty of car parking.

Call me on 0432 055 301

or email catherine@catherine-williams.com

 

Jim Baillie
Sydney

I arbitrate, determine or facilitate the resolution of commercial disputes, particularly those involving private companies and trusts, professional services firms and not for profit organisations.  I am a very experienced business lawyer with a reputation for problem solving and getting things done to the satisfaction of all involved parties. 

Hugh Davis
Perth, Western Australia

Hugh is a professional mechanical engineer and practicing commercial arbitrator (PRIArb2), adjudicator and advisor to the construction industry.  As part of his current role, he advises parties to building and construction contracts on commercial matters at any stage of the project lifecycle. 

Peter Megens

Experienced domestic and international arbitration practitioner specialising in construction and real estate, transport, energy mining and natural resources transport and insurance. Has practised extensively in Australia and the Asia-Pacific region wide variety of disputes and in particular construction and infrastructure projects, mining and energy projects and the like.

Richard Manly QC

Legal Barrister

Chris Morrow
North Sydney

Chris has extensive experience negotiating contracts and managing contractual issues and outcomes. His engineering, legal and tribunal experience together with his excellent strategic skills enables him to resolve complex disputes so as to achieve early and effective settlements for his clients.

He is a qualified mechanical engineer having led the implementation of complex services designs in fast-tracked design and construction projects and has experience across a broad range of projects, including electrical power generation and distribution, telecommunications, broadcasting, information technology, commercial and residential building and construction, rail and road infrastructure and industrial plant.

He has also prepared numerous reports as an expert witness in extension of time, compensable delay and disruption matters for those types of projects.

Expertise:

  • contract administration
  • preparation of contract documents and contract risk reviews
  • preparation and defence of contract claims
  • preparation of payment claims, payment schedules, adjudication applications and adjudication responses under security of payment legislation
  • preparation of submissions for formal dispute resolution processes
  • expert reports and expert witness services in extension of time (EOT), compensable delay and disruption matters
  • mediator, adjudicator, expert determiner and arbitrator 

Qualifications:

  • Radio Technicians Certificate (RTC) - New Zealand Polytechnic Institute
  • Bachelor of Engineering (BE) – UNSW
  • Graduate Diploma in Management (Technology) - Deakin
  • Bachelor of Laws (LLB) - UTS
  • Graduate Certificate in Legal Practice - UTS
  • Accredited mediator, adjudicator, arbitrator, expert determiner, expert witness - Institute of Arbitrators & Mediators Australia
Andrew Robertson
Adelaide - Offices Interstate

2002 - Partner, Piper Alderman;

1994-2002 - Solicitor then Partner, Nosworthy Partners

Fellow of CPA Australia. Former National Councillor and long time Chapter Committee member

Dulal Ghosh
Justin Carter
Melbourne | Brisbane | Hong Kong

I am a barrister and arbitrator with an unusual skill set. I’m known for dealing with ‘strange stuff’, so solicitors often seek my help with unique and unusual legal problems. My broad understanding of different jurisdictions, and experience across practice areas, is invaluable in identifying legal mechanisms available for clients to resolve their legal and commercial matters. 

You’ll find me representing large private organisations, state and federal governments, statutory authorities, and local councils — in Australia and in overseas jurisdictions. My in-depth knowledge of Chinese legal systems has seen me act for clients in matters involving the laws of the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong and Taiwan. You can find information about briefing me at www.justincarter.com.au 

Anna Svenson, my clerk, is available to help, at clerks@svenson.com.au or on +61 3 9225 7333.

Robert McDougall QC
Sydney

Retired judge, now arbitrator, referee, mediator etc in commercial and construction disputes. I served for more than 15 years as a judge of the Supreme Court of New South Wales, sitting in the Commercial. Construction and Arbitration Lists.

paul wellington

Curtin University School of Architecture Construction and Planning ; sessional lecturer in construction law Royal Australian Institute of Architects Archicentre : participating architect Royal Australian Institute of Architects WA Executive Director (1993 - 1996) Paul Wellington Pty Ltd Architects Melbourne and Perth (1984 - 2005) see web site on www.paulwellington.com

Hon Michael Kirby
Based in Sydney CBD in Legal Precinct

General mediation services in Sydney and throughout Australia.

International commercial and other Arbitration - including in Singapore, India and elsewhere.